CONCRETEBOT – 6-axis jointed-arm kinematic system for largescale 3d- concrete printing.

ConcreteBot is designed as a 6-axis jointed-arm kinematic system for largescale 3d- concrete printing. The structural components of the robot are made of light alloy and iron castings. AC servomotors drive the axes. The robot consists of the following principal components:

  • In-line wrist
  • Arm
  • Link arm
  • Rotating column
  • Base frame
  • Counterbalancing system
  • Electrical installations

The ConcreteBot system consists of the following components:

  • Robot
  • Robot controller
  • Smart PAD teaches pendant
  • Connecting cables
  • Software
  • Options, accessories
  • concrete tank
  • pumping mechanism,
  • special concrete printing nozzle head
  1. Materials: Mix Design

The five most important aspects of the mix that are studied are extrudability, flowability, buildability, compressive strength, and open time.


  1. Mechanics: Machine Design

ConcreteBot is basically composed of three main components: the concrete tank and pumping mechanism, the printing nozzle, and the 6 axis robot motion control system. The concrete starts its journey at the tank and is manually pumped to reach the nozzle, which is responsible for pouring it.

 2.1 Motion along the axes

ConcreteBot is designed to move on a tri-axial plane (x-y-z) in order to print a 3-dimensional element.

 2.2 Nozzle design

The nozzle diameter has a direct relationship with the concrete mix properties, specifically its flowability (i.e. Extrudability of aggregates of a maximum size of 2mm). As the diameter size decreases, the flowability of the mix should be increased to account for it and vice versa.


 2.3 Tank and Pump Design

At high pressure, or even at low pressure, a pump sprayed the concrete with air and thus wasn’t appropriate for this application. The most critical element considered is the pressure exerted by the pump on the mix. This pressure directly affects the speed at which the concrete is being poured.

Mix Number Cement (gr) Sand (gr) Fine Aggregates (gr) max.2mm W/C Ratio Superplasticizer (mL) Retarder (mL) Accelarator (mL) GRC (options)
1 34% 22% 44% 0.48 1.00% 1.00% 0.50% 3.50%
2 34% 22% 44% 0.42 1.00% 1.00% 0.50% 3.50%
3 34% 22% 44% 0.39 1.00% 1.00% 0.50% 3.50%
4 34% 22% 44% 0.38 1.00% 1.00% 0.50% 3.50%
5 34% 22% 44% 0.36 1.00% 1.00% 0.50% 3.50%

ConcreteBot is created for construction industry.

ConcreteBot can be customised upon customer request.